Sunday, November 06, 2011

The problem with peddling pseudoscientific claims regarding Mecca Time

by Salman Hameed

I have written before about the pseudoscience of claims that Mecca is the physical center of the world (see Mecca Clock: Seeking Prestige via Borrowed Science). Mecca is definitely the spiritual center of the Muslim world and one of the most important religious places in the world. In fact, we can see its important right now as more than 2 million people have gathered there for the annual pilgrimage of Hajj (Eid Mubarak!). But the pilgrims must also be seeing a gigantic clock towering over the most scared place in Islam. When the clock was inaugurated last year, some called to replace GMT with Mecca time, with some justifying it with a litany of pseudoscientific claims.

I have an article at Religion Dispatches on the impact of such claims on Muslims. Here are some sections from the article. You can read the rest of the article here: .
However, what makes this case interesting is the fact that after the inauguration of the clock, there were calls from many Muslims to replace Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)—the world standard for 125 years—with Mecca Time. Some have argued that GMT is the remnant of a colonial heritage, and it is time to turn over a new page. 
Surely, there is nothing special about where the Greenwich Observatory is located. The reason that the meridian is 0 at Greenwich is because the British figured out how to calculate longitude at sea first, so they got to make a part of England the main reference point. Names associated with science are often, if not always, symptomatic of political power of the time. This is why many of the elements discovered in the 20th century—like berkelium, americium, and californium—have American names (though sometimes there were competing claims from Soviet laboratories also). Similarly, because Arab astronomy was dominant in the late medieval period, and Arabic atlases played a key role in the development of modern astronomy, more than half of the brightest stars in the sky have Arabic names. But for some Muslims today, that’s not enough. 
Even if we concede the colonial legacy of GMT, what would justify Mecca to be the replacement reference point for the entire world?
But then here is the problem with some of the science itself:
Things start to get messy pretty fast. There is now a widespread belief amongst Muslims that one can prove “scientifically” that Mecca is really the true “center of the world.” This line of reasoning has been heavily promoted and popularized by a prominent Egyptian cleric, Sheikh Youssef al-Qaradawy, who claims that, unlike other longitudes, Mecca is in perfect alignment with the north magnetic pole. Some Arab scientists have also lent their authority to these claims. For example, Abdel-Baset al-Sayeed of the Egyptian National Research Centre claims that Mecca is a “zero-magnetism zone.” In fact, he goes on to say, “That’s why if someone travels to Mecca or lives there, he lives longer, is healthier, and is less affected by the earth’s gravity. You get charged with energy.” 
All of these claims are complete bunk. For example, even if one assumes that there is a special alignment with the northern magnetic field, the position of the magnetic north changes every year. It is currently in northern Canada and moving towards Russia at 40 miles per year. (The magnetic south pole is also moving in Antarctica.) So unless one wants to move Mecca at a similar speed, it may have a hard time keeping whatever alignment Youssef al-Qaradawy is talking about.
This, in fact, is not much different than the pseudoscience of I'jaz (the efforts to find modern science in the Qur'an. For a critique of I'jaz, see this post and another one by Nidhal Guessoum). But this also feeds into Islamophobia in the West that portrays Muslims as backwards in terns of science:
The emotional appeal of such ideas, and the backing of some Muslim scientists, makes it very hard to challenge them. Such a challenge can only come from within the Muslim world, as any other approach will directly feed into the resurgent anti-Western narrative, which unfortunately the Western media often only reinforces. For example, the Daily Telegraph ended its story on the calls to adopt Mecca Time and the geological uniqueness of Mecca with the following disclaimer: “Western scientists have challenged such assertions, noting that the Magnetic North Pole is in actual fact on a line of longitude that passes through Canada, the United States, Mexico, and Antarctica.” The problem here is the qualifier, “Western” before scientists. Virtually all respectable scientists, Western or non-Western, would agree with the above statement, including many Muslim scientists. But by adding “Western” before “scientists,” the sentence creates an impression of a clash between Muslims—clinging to pseudoscientific ideas—and the rational West. 
To complicate things further, these pseudoscientific claims and the subsequent news coverage provide fodder for those who want to portray Islam as an inherently anti-modern and anti-scientific religion. For example, the Mecca clock got the attention of the conservative website Jihad Watch, which connected the calls for Mecca Time to an “Islamic Supremacist agenda”: “Amid the absurdity, the common thread with other manifestations of the Islamic supremacist agenda, is that they’ll say anything to get what they want. And all too many will go in for it, hook, line, and sinker.” Even a blog post for Foreign Policy was titled, “Mecca’s Plan to Steal Time,” and began with the following lines: “Forget the clash of civilizations—the next grand battle between East and West will be over Time itself.” 
Mecca matters deeply to Muslims because of its religious importance. Building such an enormous clock may make it all the more a source of pride to the religion of over a billion people, though I can also imagine some objecting to the presence of such a large structure next to the holy grounds. Nevertheless, the efforts by some to seek religious legitimacy of Mecca with bad science do a disservice to both religion and science, and perhaps diminish the dignity of the very place they seek to glorify.
Read the full article here.

4 comments:

Anonymous said...

I can see where you are coming from and I can also see where the "Western" papers are coming from. If nobody from within the Muslim community comes forward and officially claims that Qaradawi makes bogus claims and forces him to swallow the consequences of bogus claims nothing is going to change. As long as people like Qaradawi are not challenged from within it seems that everybody supports them. So unless any major newspaper in the Arab world makes fun of him and his claims the West will continue to see the East as backwards.

Akbar said...

I still don't get the idea of such a supermassive structure right next to the holy place. What a distraction. Anyways, accommodating hundreds of thousands of pilgrims at the most convenient distance to Ka'aba may be the idea behind it. Regarding time, is at all there is a problem with the GMT, I don't think so. To claim the lost muslim pride, may be building world's finest university, best cancer research facility, or the largest space observatory would do better than building grand structures. They certainly have money and resources. Anyways, Happy Eid from Tasmania.

Anonymous said...

The world's finest university sounds good but what if research is crippled by people who tell you what is allowed to study and what not and if they tell you what outcome there has to be?

Ayman Fadel said...

I was going to write: Is there a link to document that Muslims are claiming that Makka is the center of the earth? Unfortunately, a quick search in Google in Arabic led me to this video:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lSaD0I6NGV8

The author of the video inserts text refuting the claims of AbdelBasit al-Sayyid.

I thought, maybe MEMRI has distorted the video. Sadly, that is not the case either.

Painfully, you can listen to the man directly from an Egyptian "Islamic" satellite TV at http://youtu.be/sX4OoakWz-M?t=4m44s. He actually makes a series of additional claims, all more amazing than the last.